Resources by Year

2017
Speaker Presentations
Fran Bagenal

Planetary Magnetospheres (pdf)

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Turbulence in Fluids and Space Plasmas

  • Textbook I, Chapter 7
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Dynamo Theory: Basics

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
Ofer Cohen

Comparative Heliophysics (pdf)

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 1
Nicholas Gross

Lab 2: Solar Dynamos

Nicholas Gross

Lab 5: Variations in Solar Irradiance

Lab 6: Exploring Ionosphere Structures

Nicholas Gross

Lab 1: Tracking a Solar Storm

Nicholas Gross

Lab 3: Solar Wind

Nicholas Gross

Lab 4: Comparative Magnetospheres

Madhulika Guhathakurta

Eclipse & Comparative Heliophysics (pdf)

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 1
Greg Kopp

Solar Spectral Irradiance: Measurements and Models

  • Textbook III, Chapter 10
Marty Lee

Acceleration and Heating in the Solar Wind (pdf)

  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
Marty Lee

Energetic Particles in the Heliosphere (pdf)

  • Textbook II, Chapter 9
Dana Longcope

Why Does the Earth Have a Magnetosphere, Radiation Belts & an Ionosphere?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 11
  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 8
Dana Longcope

Why do the Sun and Planets have Magnetic Fields?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 2
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 6
Dana Longcope

Why is there a Corona and a Wind?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 3
Mark Miesch

Solar Internal Flows and Dynamo Action (pdf)

Homework

  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6

Notes: This is an optional homework problem (e-mail Dr. Miesch for solution key).

Mark Miesch

Planetary Fields and Dynamos (pdf)

  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 6
Jan Sojka

Terrestrial Ionospheres (pdf)

  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
Jan Sojka

Long-term Evolution of the Geospace Climate (pdf)

  • Textbook III, Chapter 14

Notes: This lecture is actually Jan Sojka's Chapter 14 in Textbook III

Lisa Upton

Solar Cycle Predictions (pdf)

  • Textbook III, Chapter 2
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
2016
Speaker Presentations
Vladimir Airapetian

Comparative Heliophysics

  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Large-Scale Instabilities

Amitava Bhattacharjee

Magnetic Reconnection and Energy Conversions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
Doug Biesecker

Effects of Space Weather & Mitigation Strategies

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 13
  • Textbook II, Chapter 14
Doug Biesecker

Forecasting Space Weather Events

Timothy Fuller-Rowell
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Nicholas Gross

Lab 1: SWx Events

Lab 2: Solar Dynamo

Lab 3: Solar Wind

Lab 4: CME Analysis

Lab 5: Comparative Magnetospheres

Madhulika Guhathakurta

Comparative Heliophysics

  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
Dana Longcope

Why do Sun and Planets Have Magnetic Fields?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 2
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 6
Dana Longcope

Why is There a Corona & a Wind?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 3
Dana Longcope

Why does the Earth have a Magnetosphere, Radiation Belts & an Ionosphere?

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 11
  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 8
Dana Longcope

Solar Flares

  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
Merav Opher
  • Textbook II, Chapter 7
Merav Opher
  • Textbook II, Chapter 8
  • Textbook II, Chapter 9
  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Neal Savani

CMEs

  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 4
Lisa Upton

Introduction to the Solar Dynamo

2015
Speaker Presentations
Nick Achilleos

Planetary Magnetospheres

Homework

Solutions

Nick Achilleos

Introducing the Seasons of the Sun-Planetary System Connections

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
  • Textbook III, Chapter 11
Tom Ayres

Observing/Measuring Solar/Stellar Activity and Solar/Stellar Wind

  • Textbook II, Chapter 4
Fran Bagenal

Planetary Magnetic Fields - PDF

Planetary Magnetic Fields - PPT

Daniel Baker

Couplings with Magnetospheres: Missions Throughout the Heliosphere

  • Textbook II, Chapter 4
John Foster

Geospace Variability Through the Solar Cycle 1

Geospace Variability Through the Solar Cycle 2

Sarah Gibson
  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
Gary Glatzmaier

Planetary Dynamo(s) and Their Seasons 1

Planetary Dynamo(s) and Their Seasons 2

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
Nicholas Gross

Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC)

Lab 1: Sun to Earth Storms

Lab 2: Solar Dynamo/Stellar Dynamos

Lab 3: Sources of Solar Spectral Irradiance

Lab 4: Solar Wind Properties Through the Solar Cycle

Lab 5: Magnetospheric Dipole

Mona Kessel
Bill Lotko
Janet Luhmann

Solar-Wind Through the Sunspot Cycle, (I)CME Modulations by Eruptive & Explosive Phenomena, and Effects on GCRs 1

Solar-Wind Through the Sunspot Cycle, (I)CME Modulations by Eruptive & Explosive Phenomena, and Effects on GCRs 2

Janet Luhmann

Introducing the Seasons of the Sun-Planetary System Connections

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
Mark Moldwin

Universal Plasma Processes in Heliophysics 1

Universal Plasma Processes in Heliophysics 2

  • Textbook II, Chapter 1
Andres Munoz

Solar Cycle & Dynamo (including extended minima and maxima), and the Large-Scale Field 1

Solar Cycle & Dynamo (including extended minima and maxima), and the Large-Scale Field 2

Karel Schrijver

Proposal Elements

Jan Sojka
Stan Solomon

Orbital Seasons, Radiative Transport, Ionization, and Chemistry in Planetary Outer Atmospheres

  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
Harry Warren

Solar Spectral Radiance and Their Origins Through Cycles of Solar Magnetism 1

Solar Spectral Radiance and Their Origins Through Cycles of Solar Magnetism 2

2014
Speaker Presentations
Fran Bagenal

Introduction to Magnetospheric Physics 1

Introduction to Magnetospheric Physics 2

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
David Brain

Climates of Terrestrial Planets 1

Climates of Terrestrial Planets 2

  • Textbook III, Chapter 4
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 8
Paul Charbonneau

Stellar Dynamos

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
Ofer Cohen

Effects of Stellar Eruptions Throughout Astrospheres

* Cohen Movie

* Aurora On ESP Movie

* ESP CME 3D Movie

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 7
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 4
Debra Fischer

Characteristics of Planetary Systems 1

Characteristics of Planetary Systems 2

  • Textbook III, Chapter 3
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 5
Tamas Gombosi

Introducing Heliophysics from the Perspective of Universal Processes

  • Textbook II, Chapter 1

Notes: Homework is embedded in Video 2

Nicholas Gross

Lab 1: Tracking a Solar Storm: Expert-Jigsaw Analysis

Lab 2: Solar Wind Variation Throughout the Heliosphere

Lab 3a: Magnetosphere 1: A Different Magnetosphere

Lab: 3b: Magnetosphere 2: A Magnetosphere in Different Places

Lab 4: Simple Comparative Ionospheres Using the Chapman Layer Model

Lab 5: Stellar Dynamos: A Parametric Study

Madhulika Guhathakurta

General Introduction to Heliophysics: Science

  • Textbook I, Chapter 1
  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
Rod Heelis

Introduction to ITM Processes

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
  • Textbook III, Chapter 14
Margaret Kivelson

Interaction of Moons, Asteroids, & Comets with their Surroundings

Homework

  • Textbook IV, Chapter 10
Luke Moore

Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling at the Giant Planet

Homework

  • Textbook IV, Chapter 9
Bill Murtagh

General introduction to Heliophysics: Society

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 13
  • Textbook II, Chapter 14
Rachel Osten

Solar Explosive Activity Throughout the Evolution of the Solar System - Introduction Process

Solar Explosive Activity Throughout the Evolution of the Solar System - Trends With Time

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 2
Karel Schrijver

Observations of Stellar Dynamos

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
David Siskind

Aeronomy of Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres

  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
  • Textbook III, Chapter 14
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 7
Sabine Stanley

Planetary Dynamos: Updates & New Frontiers

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
Brian Wood/Jeffrey Linsky

Stellar Winds and Their Interaction with the Variable ISM

Homework

  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
  • Textbook III, Chapter 9
  • Textbook IV, Chapter 3
2013
Speaker Presentations
Fran Bagenal

Comparative Magnetospheres: Planets and Their Satellites

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
Daniel Baker

Energetic Particles and Their Impact Around the Heliosphere: Satellites & Astronauts, to GLEs

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 13
  • Textbook II, Chapter 14
Mario Bisi

Planetary and Solar Radio Occultation/Scintillations

* Planetary and Solar Radio Occultation/Scintillations: Additional Material

Brief Quasar History Twinkle-Twinkle

Stephen Bougher

ITM Physics of Terrestrial Planets (Including GMD Couplings from Above and Atmospheric from Below)

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
  • Textbook III, Chapter 14
David Burgess

Shocks and Energetic Particles: Corona, Wind, Planets, Solar System

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 7
  • Textbook II, Chapter 8
Terry Forbes

Magnetic Energy Conversion Processes: Solar/Geospace/Other Planets

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
Marina Galand

Planetary Outer Atmospheres: Interfaces from Atmospheres to Magnetospheres

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 11
Joe Giacalone

Galactic Cosmic Rays: Sources, Propagation, Entry Throughout Solar System

Galactic Cosmic Rays: Sources, Propagation, Entry Throughout Solar System

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
  • Textbook III, Chapter 9
Nicholas Gross

Lab 1: Tracking a Storm

Lab 2: Solar Wind Variation Throughout the Heliosphere

Lab 3: Magnetosphere 1: A Different Magnetosphere

Lab 4: Magnetosphere 2: A Magnetosphere in Different Places

Lab 5: Ionospheres

Mihaly Horanyi

Comets, Asteroids, and dust Subject to Solar Radiation and Solar Wind

Homework

Norbert Jakowski

Radio Wave Propagation for Communication and Probing; Ionospheric Scintillation

Norbert Krupp

Comparative Energetic Particle Environments (SEP/GCR/Local)

Mark Moldwin

Introduction to Heliophysics System Physics: Processes and Environments, Similarities and Differences

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 1
  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
  • Textbook II, Chapter 1
  • Textbook III, Chapter 1
Karel Schrijver

Solar Spectral Irradiation & Wind Over Time Scales up to a Decade

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 8
  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
  • Textbook III, Chapter 2
  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
  • Textbook III, Chapter 10
Sabine Stanley

Dynamos in Planets and Stars

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
Kent Tobiska

Satellite-Based GPS, Communication and Societal Impacts of Space Weather

2012
Speaker Presentations
Daniel Baker

An Overview of Heliophysical Exploration

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Basic Plasma Concepts and Models

Amitava Bhattacharjee

Magnetic Reconnection

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 4
  • Textbook I, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
David Boteler

The Impact of Space Weather on the Electric Power Grid

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
Benjamin Chandran

Introduction to Turbulence and Heating in the Solar Wind

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 7
Eric Donovan

The Substorm: An Introduction to the Topic in the THEMIS Era

The Substorm

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
John Dorelli

Earth’s Magnetosphere

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook I, Chapter 11
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
Kevin Forbes

Establishing the Economic Impacts of Space Weather: The Case of Electricity

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
Nicholas Gross

Lab 1: Investigating the Magnetosphere

Lab 2: The Dynamic Magnetosphere

Lab 3: Solar Activity

Lab 4: Exploring the Structure of the Solar Wind

Philip Judge

Physics of the Solar Chromosphere

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
Justin Kasper

The Solar Wind

  • The Solar Wind Video
  • Solar Wind Model Video 1
  • Solar Wind Model Video 2
  • Solar Wind Aug 99 Video
  • Solar Wind Loops Orbit NTSC Video

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
Dana Longcope

Shocks in Heliophysics

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 7
  • Textbook II, Chapter 8
Sten Odenwald

Space Weather: Impacts, Mitigation & Forecasting

Space Weather and It's Societal Impacts

  • Textbook II, Chapter 2
Karel Schrijver

The Solar Atmosphere

  • Textbook II, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
  • Textbook III, Chapter 2
Yuri Shprits

Radiation Belts

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Jan Sojka

The Ionosphere-Thermosphere

  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
2011
Speaker Presentations
Fran Bagenal

Dynamos and Magnetospheres of the Planets

  • Textbook I, Chapter 13
  • Textbook III, Chapter 7
Fran Bagenal

Formation & Habitability of Planets

Homework

  • Textbook III, Chapter 4
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Basic Plasma Concepts and Models

  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Jack Gosling

Structure and Evolution of the Three Dimensional Solar Wind

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
Randy Jokipii

Cosmic Rays

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 9
Greg Kopp

Solar Irradiances

  • Textbook III, Chapter 10
Greg Kopp

Solar Variability and Earth’s Climate

  • Textbook III, Chapter 11
  • Textbook III, Chapter 12
Dana Longcope

Introduction to Heliophysics

Mark Miesch

Solar Convection and the Solar Dynamo

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
  • Textbook III, Chapter 6
Mark Miesch

Lab: Solar Convection and Dynamo

Matthias Rempel

Creation and Destruction of Magnetic Fields

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
Jan Sojka

The Earth's Ionosphere

Long Term Evolution of Geospace Climate

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 12
  • Textbook III, Chapter 13
Frank Toffoletto

Solar Wind/Magnetosphere Coupling

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 11
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
Frank Toffoletto

Lab: Magnetosphere

2010
Speaker Presentations
Daniel Baker

Space Weather Effects - PP

Space Weather Effects - PDF

  • Textbook II, Chapter 14
Timothy Bastian

Radiative Signatures of Energetic Particles

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 4
Amitava Bhattacharjee

Introductory Lecture I: Basic Plasma Concepts/Plasma Models

Community Coordinated Modeling Center

Lab 1: Introduction to CCMC tools and services

Community Coordinated Modeling Center

Lab 2: CCMC Sun to L1 Lab

Community Coordinated Modeling Center

Lab 3: CCMC - L1 into Geospace

Terry Forbes

Models of Flares and CMEs

Homework

  • Textbook I, Chapter 5
  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
Timothy Fuller-Rowell

Ionosphere thermosphere response

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
J. Grebowsky

IT Science Overlay

David Klumpar

Detection of Energetic Particles

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 3
Janet Kozyra

The Complete Disturbance: Energy Transport

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
Marty Lee

Particle Acceleration in Shocks

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 8
  • Textbook II, Chapter 8
Michael Liemohn

Energization of Trapped Particles

Homework

  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Dana Longcope

Magnetic Reconnection

  • Textbook I, Chapter 1
  • Textbook I, Chapter 4
  • Textbook I, Chapter 5
NASA
Merav Opher

Shocks in Heliophysics

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 7
  • Textbook II, Chapter 7
Jan Sojka

Introductory Lecture II: An Overview of Space Storms

Harlan Spence

Particle Effects on Humans and Biological Tissues - PP

Particle Effects on Humans and Biological Tissues - PDF

  • Textbook II, Chapter 13
Vytenis Vasyliunas

Planetary magnetospheres

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 10
  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
2009
Speaker Presentations
Caspar M. Ammann

Climate Models of Earth and Planets

Juerg Beer

Evidence of external influences on planetary climates

Donald Brownlee

Planetary Habitability

The Drake Equation

Paul Charbonneau

Solar and Stellar Dynamo Models

Ulrich Christensen

Planetary Magnetic Fields and Dynamos

Thomas Crowley

A Vintage 2009 Assessment of the Sun-Climate Connection in Paleoclimate Records

Lee Hartmann

Formation of Stars and Their Planets

Randy Jokipii

The Evolving Heliosphere and its Particle Environment

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook II, Chapter 9
  • Textbook III, Chapter 3
  • Textbook III, Chapter 8
  • Textbook III, Chapter 9
Judith Lean

Solar Total and Spectral Irradiance Measurements and Models: A Users Guide

Mark Miesch

Solar Internal Flows and Dynamo Action

  • Textbook III, Chapter 5
Karel Schrijver

Long-Term Evolution of Magnetic Activity of Sun-Like Stars

Impact Generated Shockwaves are Proposed for the Origin of Sunspots to Explain the Detected Planetary Correlations with Solar Activity

Extreme-Ultraviolet Flare Activity in Late-Type Stars

Twenty-Seven Day Recurrences in Terrestrial Magnetic and Solar Activity, 1923-1933

On a Transition from Solar-Like Coronae to Rotation-Dominated Jovian-Like Magnetospheres in Ultracool Main-Sequence Stars

George Siscoe

The Palemagnetoshere

Jan Sojka

Long-Term Evolution of the Geospace Climate

Stan Solomon

Ionospheres of the Terrestrial Planets

2008
Speaker Presentations
Krauss-Varban Dietmar

ECP II: Shock Acceleration

  • Textbook II, Chapter 8
Krauss-Varban Dietmar

Lab: Hybrid Simulations: Numerical Details and Current Applications

Terry Forbes

ECP (Energy Conversion Processes) I: Buildup to Instability Then Explosive Conversion

  • Textbook II, Chapter 6
Timothy Fuller-Rowell

EM Flare Radiation and Atmospheric Response: ITM and Chromosphere

  • Textbook II, Chapter 12
Goerge Gloeckler

Energetic Particles and their Detection in Situ (Particle Detectors) 1

Energetic Particles and their Detection in Situ (Particle Detectors) 2

Energetic Particles and their Detection in Situ (Particle Detectors) 3

  • Textbook II, Chapter 3
Janet Green

ECP II: Energization of Trapped Particles in Planetary Radiation Belts

  • Textbook II, Chapter 11
Hugh Hudson

Observations of Solar and Stellar Eruptions, Flares, and Jets

  • Textbook II, Chapter 5
Merav Opher

The Varieties of Shocks: Coronal, CME, CIR, Heliospheric, and Planetary

George Siscoe

Lab: The Chapman-Feraro Problem

Alan Tribble

Particle Interaction with Technology

  • Textbook II, Chapter 14
Vytenis Vasyliunas

Application of ECP I: Magnetic (Sub-)Storms, and Planetary Counterparts

  • Textbook II, Chapter 10
Richard Walterscheid

Waves in Planetary Atmospheres

  • Textbook III, Chapter 15
2007
Speaker Presentations
Caspar M. Ammann

Solar Variability and Earth’s Climate

Fran Bagenal

A Casebook of Universal Plasma Processes 1

A Casebook of Universal Plasma Processes 2

Tom Bogdan

A Gentle Introduction to Heliophysics

  • Textbook I, Chapter 2
Mihir Desai

Energetic Particles from Solar Explosions

Terry Forbes

Magnetic Reconnection

CME's and Flares

  • Textbook I, Chapter 5
Michael Gehmeyr

Introduction to CISM_DX and Overview of OpenDX

Viggo Hansteen

The Solar Atmosphere

Thermally Driven Winds

  • Textbook I, Chapter 8
  • Textbook I, Chapter 9
Dana Longcope

Magnetic Field Topology

  • Textbook I, Chapter 4
Mark Moldwin

Magnetic Flux Ropes in Space Plasmas

Homework

Solutions

  • Textbook I, Chapter 6
Matthias Rempel

Creation and Destruction of Magnetic Fields 1

Creation and Destruction of Magnetic Fields 2

  • Textbook I, Chapter 3
Karel Schrijver

Tutorial: The Magnetic Connection Between the Sun and the Heliosphere

George Siscoe

Lab: A Tour of the Magnetosphere with CCMC Models

Chuck Smith

Turbulence in Space Plasmas

Frank Toffoletto

Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling

Geomagnetic Storms and Substorms